A report of the investigation must include:

- Objective of the experiment,
- Inference,
- Hypothesis,
- Three types of variables: manipulated variable, responding variable and fixed variable,
- Defined operational variables,
- List of apparatus,
- Procedure,
- Tabulation of data,
- Analysis of data,
- Conclusion.

Inference:

Inference is a statement to state the relationship between two visible quantities observed in a diagram or picture.Hypothesis:

Hypothesis is a statement to state the relationship between two measurable variables that can be investigated in a lab.The Variables

A variable is a quantity that can vary in value. There are 3 types of variable:

- Manipulated Variables: Manipulated variables are factors which changed for the experiment.
- Responding Variables: Responding variables are factors which depend on the manipulated variables.
- Constant Variables: Constant variables are factors which are kept the same throughout the experiment.

Tabulating Data

A proper way of tabulating data should include the following:

- The name or the symbols of the variables must be labelled with respective units.
- All measurements must be consistent with the sensitivity of the instruments used.
- All the values must be consistent to the same number of decimal places.

The Graph

Graphs are used to make a relationship between variables.

Gradient value and extrapolation of a graph are used to analyse a graph.

A well-plotted must contain the following features:

- A title to show the two variables under investigation,
- two axes labelled with the correct variables and their respective units,
- the graph drawn is greater than 50 % of the graph paper,
- appropriate scales (1:1 x 10
^{x}, 1:2 x 10^{x}and 1:5 x 10^{x}) - all the points are correctly plotted,
- a best fit line is drawn

External Link

Scientific Investigation

Introduction to Scientific Investigation

Interactive Animation

Scientific Investigation

Introduction to Scientific Investigation

Interactive Animation